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Organizational management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of organization members and resources to achieve stated organizational goals. Decisions, big and small, need to be made everyday, and for an organization to be effective, its managers need to be able to constantly solve problems and make decisions that are of benefit to it.
No leadership style is right, wrong, or best for all situations. The most effective approach for a particular organization being dependent on: the skill levels and experience of the members of the organization; the type of work involved; the organizational environment (stable or radically changing, conservative or adventurous). In practice though, a good leader tends to find him or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with.
Planning is essential for an organization to achieve it’s desired objectives, and must be undertaken at each and every step of its development. It’s necessary to first plan on a broad organization-wide scale and then to drill down through the different levels of the organization so that everyone within it knows what is required of them.
Done thoroughly, this should result in each member of an organization essentially having a to-do list that represents their needed contributions (directly and indirectly) to the organizations objectives. The goal being to make sure everyone has enough responsibility to challenge them, without so much work that they‘ll feel overwhelmed and become demoralized.
It’s typical within an organization, though it will depend on its size, to find regional managers, divisional managers (human resources, finance, sales, etc.), and departmental managers (who manage the departments within the divisions). The way regions, divisions, departments and people link together and interact is set out in a management structure (sometimes also referred to as an organizational structure).
The structure and pattern of communications within an organization has a significant influence on the accuracy of decisions, the speed with which they can be reached, and the satisfaction of the people involved. These are the standard patterns of communication: chain; wheel; star; all-channel.
Which pattern is best for a particular organization is dependent on it’s size, the speed and accuracy at which it must reach decisions, and it’s room for error in judgment. However, the fact that the majority of organizations operate using the star pattern indicates that, in practice, it returns the best all-round results.
Whichever management structure and patterns of communication are implemented need to be regularly reviewed to ensure that an organization and all of its subsystems (processes, departments, teams, employees, etc.) are working effectively to achieve the results desired by the organization. Such reviews (referred to as performance management) can be carried out on a general basis, or on units of performance, such as quantity, quality, cost or timeliness.